“It’s an honor to announce that we’ve successfully discovered, cloned & characterized the densonucleosis virus (DNV) Antigen, which will be able to infect Anopheles gambiae. That will hinder its ability to transmit Malaria parasite, Plasmodium or, at least, reduce its lifespan. I’ve to tell you this: This will be the latest in Malaria control.” Well.. those are my words but, of course, it is not my discovery. It’s the team of researchers from Johns Hopkins who discovered it. To realize how big it’s; we first need to know the previous approaches & trials in Malaria control.
To think, just think, about control/ prevention of any of those vector-borne parasites; automatically researchers think about these:
1- Prevent infection – disease – transmission.
2- By looking at: the parasite’s life cycle – the mosquito – the human immune system.
3- So, it’ll look like that: get humans vaccinated – develop genetically modified mosquitoes incapable of transmitting the parasite or simply “I was so naive to think that it’s simple” kill them with insecticides (anti-vector measures) – target the parasite at any stage of its life cycle.
For decades, DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) & Chloroquine were successfully used in eradication of Anopheles & Plasmodium respectively, “I do like this word, makes me sound like a pro”. Chloroquine was used in treatment as well as prevention, till the emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium parasites and DDT-resistant Anopheles mosquitoes. Yes, they overcame the humans’ arsenal. So, preventing spread of resistant parasites is the #1 priority.
We can’t talk about all control strategies today, so we’ll talk about anti-vector measures. What do they use in control programs as anti-vector measures?
1- Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) & long-lasting ITNs (LLINs) it helped kids to survive. The only allowed insecticides to be used in ITNs are pyrethroid insecticides, so when the pyrethroid resistance emerged, as usual, it was really bad.
2- Indoor residual spraying (IRS) using DDT
One word about the mechanism of action of DDT & pyrethroids, both target voltage-gated Na-channels. So, when a set of mutations change the protein structure; Congratulations! It’s resistance to both DDT & pyrethroids.
3- New approach: Molecular talk; Know more about “blood meal” host selection. Yes, Anopheles smells the host, so researchers want to identify that pathway.
4- Another new approach: They are investigating genes which encode proteins that may interrupt the development of the parasite in the Anopheles.
The latest as an anti-vector measure is using Paratransgenesis or “the genetic manipulation of insect symbiotic (mutualistic, commensal or parasitic) microorganisms”, I can’t get the term or the definition. I’ll say it like that: “Any other m.o. has a relationship with the vector”. The steps are:
1- Know the Ag (Pick the gift)
2- Get the gene(s) engineered to be successfully expressed (Wrap the gift)
3- Delivery to Anopheles (Deliver the gift)
So the gift will be the non-enveloped ssDNA virus called (DNV). Its genome is very small, when they say for a viral genome that it’s small, so it has to be small (4–6 kb). The entire genome can be placed in a plasmid.
Back to the story of the discovery, they were doing a totally unrelated experiment when they found that strange band/ zone. They isolated it from the gel, cloned, sequenced, ran through BLAST which showed that it looks like DNV of Aedes aegypti (AeDNV) but not the man himself. They did multiple tests to identify the Ag, e.g. Immunofluorescence assay. There was a trial to infect Anopheles gambiae with DNV of Aedes aegypti which wasn’t successful in infecting adults from Anopheles gambiae. But the novel “AgDNV is highly infectious to An. gambiae larvae, disseminates to adult tissues, and is passed on to subsequent generations.”Tags: AeDNV, AgDNV, anopheles gambiae, anti-vector measures, DDT, IRS, ITNs, malaria, paratransgenesis, plasmodium