Researchers at Penn state discovered two new proteins which activate cells in the immune system & cause a rare form of blood cancer.
Helper T-cells can stimulate B lymphocytes to produce antibodies against the pathogen. Also, stimulate cytotoxic T-cell that kills infected cells.
Shortly after the elimination of pathogen, most of cytotoxic T-cells die while few of them remain to protect the body from re-infection with the same pathogen.
In some cases of autoimmune diseases these cells don’t die, but they expand & attack many tissues as bones to cause rheumatoid arthritis “RA” or bone marrow to cause leukemia.
Immune Response
Researchers at Penn state tried to find out conditions that cause abnormal expansion of these cells, they made an intricate computer modeling which follows up signals involved in either activation or death of these cells.

The researchers have found two proteins “IL-15 and PDGF” which are needed to cause activation & proliferation of T-cells. IL-15 causes activation, while PDGF stimulates their growth.A macrophage of a mouse stretching its

Another signaling protein called “NFκB” controlled by the two proteins which prevent the death of cancer cells whatever they are over expressed.All those proteins may become targets for drugs; when they blocked NFκB with drugs in cells from leukemia patients, an increase in mortality of abnormal T-cells has been observed.

So, the key is to find out what stimulates T-cells to survive & proliferate.

Source: Science Daily.

Image credits:  Immune response.


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